Coffee beans flourish in tropical climates with a proper balance of sun, shade,rain and rich soil. Quality coffee is found in altitudes of 3,000 to 6,000 ft. where cool nights slow down the ripening process of the coffee cherry allowing the cherry to absorb nutrients. The nutrients and slow maturation help the cherry develop sweetness and flavor.
Species and Varietals
The Robusta is grown at lower altitudes, is disease resistant and is highly productive. Growing at a lower altitude means harvesting is very economical. The species however, has a sour taste. Robusta coffee is commonly used in instant coffees and lower priced brands.
The Arabica coffee is grown at higher altitudes, is prone to disease and each tree produces only 1 to 11/2 pounds of green coffee per year. The coffee is known for its sweetness and body and abundance of flavor nuances. All of Amrita Certified Pure® coffees are 100% Arabica coffee beans.
Within the Arabica Species, there are numerous varietals. Each varietal has it own unique flavor profile. The profiles are further enhanced by the growing region and the processing of the coffee. Some of the sought-after varietals include Bourbon, Geisha, Pacamara, Catuai, Cattura, Mundo Novo.
The coffee growing cycle begins with the seedling. Farmers select seedlings from plant varietals suited for the soil, altitude and weather conditions of their farm and processing method being used for the coffee. On larger farms, different parts of the farm may be suited for different varieties of coffee. Once the variety of plant is chosen, seedlings are selected from healthy plants.
Once the seedlings are selected, the seeds are planted in nursery beds under shade. The farmer tends to the seedlings by providing the right amount of water to the beds. As the seedlings germinate the root system develops. Farmers are looking for a strong root that is long and straight with an abundance of offshoots. Once a strong root system is developed the seedlings are transferred to bags for their next growth stage. The seedlings continue to grow in the nursery until they are about one foot high.
At this point, the plants are transplanted into the fields, generally in rows about four to nine feet apart under a canopy of shade. Shade is generally provided by native trees. Not only do the trees provide shade for the coffee but they provide a habitat for migratory birds. Some shade trees are fruit trees which provide additional income and food for the farmers and workers. The coffee plant bears its first flowers in about three to five years. After a few days, the flower will fall off and the beginnings of the coffee cherry emerge.
The coffee cherry will grow for seven to nine months. During this time the cherries develop their sweetness and flavor. Most cherries develop two seeds. These seeds will eventually grow into a coffee bean. In some cases only one seed forms. The single seed is a prized bean known as a peaberry and appreciated for its rich, deep flavor. The cherries will transform from a green to a rich red color, or yellow depending upon the variety.
When it is time for harvesting the cherries are handpicked. Cherries on the same tree will ripen at different times. In most coffee growing countries, the terrain is uneven and steep and hand picking is the best way to select only the ripe cherries. Harvesters return to the same coffee plant about three times a season to pick the remaining cherries as they mature.
Between harvesting and the new flowering season, trees are pruned. The pruning is done to revitalize older trees and bolster production. Shade trees are also pruned. The pruned branches are collected and used for fuel at the wet mill, farmers and workers homes or used for building furniture.
Once the cherries are harvested, it’s time for the cherries to be processed at the wet mill (referred to as a washing station in Africa). The wet mill is generally located on the farm or at a nearby co-op. The co-op is where farmers pool their resources to build the infrastructure for a wet mill, share their knowledge of farming, processing and cupping. At the mill, the cherries are processed as fully washed, honeyed, wet hulled or natural. Each process enhances unique characteristics of the coffee plant varietal and its growing condition.
In fully washed coffee, the cherries are placed in a tank of water. The cherries that float to the top are skimmed off and left to dry naturally where they will be used in lower grades of coffee. The cherries that sink to the bottom are then pulped by having their skin and pulp removed. Once the cherries have been pulped the beans are moved to another tank with clean water where they are left to ferment. Fermentation lasts from 12 to 36 hours depending upon humidity. During fermentation the beans gain sweetness while the mucilage is loosened. After fermentation the beans are washed and put out to dry on cement patios or African beds. In some cases where the weather or land are not conducive to sun drying, mechanical dryers or a combination of sun and mechanical dryers are employed. Fully washed coffees tend to have a bright, crisp, clean acidity.
Years ago the farms would return the water used at the wet mills to nearby lakes and rivers. Today, farmers providing Amrita Certified Pure® Coffee reuse the water. Most of farms and wet mills have filtration tanks where the dirty water is recycled for purification. Gases released from the filtration tanks may be captured and used for fuel on the farm and community. Algae and solids are put into compost piles along with the discarded cherry skin and pulp. The cleaner tanks may be used for aquaculture providing the farmers and works with additional food and income. Eventually the clean water is either reused in the wet mill or used for irrigation. All Amrita Certified Pure® Coffees come from wet mills and co-ops that follow sustainable and environmentally friendly practices.
In honeyed coffee the coffee follows the same process as the washed coffee except the coffee is not fermented. The honeyed process can result in a yellow, red or black seed depending upon the amount of mucilage is removed. The yellow has the most mucilage removed while the black has the least amount removed. The honeyed process results in a sweeter, fruitier cup when compared to the washed process with the black honeyed possessing the fruitiest flavor. This process is sometimes called “semi-washed.”
The wet hulled process involves removing the skin and pulp from the beans. Once the skin is removed, the beans are partially dried on African beds. African beds are elevated screens that allow air to flow through and around the coffee. The partially dried beans have the mucilage and parchment removed before final drying. The final drying is completed when the beans reach eleven percent moisture content. The result is a fuller bodied coffee with less acidity.
With the natural process, the cherries are allowed to dry with the skin, pulp and muscilage intact. Care must be taken in turning the coffee during the drying process so that the coffee will not ferment. Coffees processed in this way tend to have pronounced fruity flavors. When the coffee is turned correctly and consistently the result is a burst of berries and other fruit flavors.
All coffee regardless of whether it is fully washed, honeyed, wet hulled or natural, must be dried to a content of around eleven percent. The coffee can be dried in open air, on patios, African beds, in tunnels on the ground or African beds or in mechanical dryers. The coffees drying in patios, African beds and tunnels must be continuously turned for even drying. In the event of rain the coffee must be protected. Mechanical dryers are often used to finish the drying process.
Once the beans have attained a moisture content of around eleven percent they are stored in silos with the last 2 layers of protective covering (parchment and silver skin). This resting period helps develop the flavor of the coffee and remove any green taste characteristics, and generally takes a few weeks to a couple of months.
The parchment and some of the silver skin is removed from the coffee bean after resting. In natural coffees, the dried skin, pulp and mucilage are also removed. The beans then go through a series of sorting processes. Each sort process separates the specialty grade from the lower grades of coffee. First the beans are sorted by size and density. Typically the larger and denser beans attain an enhanced, refined the flavor. Exceptions are the peaberry and the extra fancy grades of Hawaiian Coffee.
After sorting for size and density the beans are sorted for color. In this step, defects are spotted and separated from the specialty coffee. Defects can range from immature beans, insect damaged, sour and broken beans. In this step, the specialty coffees finally emerge. Only 1ten percent of the beans harvested earn the grade of specialty. All of Amrita Certified Pure® Coffee is 100 percent specialty Arabica coffee.
Roasting is the art and science of elevating the coffee flavor to its maximum potential without scorching or burning the bean. Roasting is a process by which aromatics, acids, and other flavor components are either created, balanced, or altered in a way that augments the coffee flavor, acidity, aftertaste and body. When coffee is roasted, the sugars of the coffee are caramelized adding sweetness to the coffee, and the color of the beans changes. Roasting is an art using the senses of sight, smell, and sound in combination with time and temperature. Roasting ultimately brings out the flavor of the coffee.
Amrita Certified Pure® Coffees are all roasted to order. Coffee beans are roasted and shipped within two business days of order placement. We roast our coffees on Sonofresco Roasters in small batches. Many roasters claim to small batch roast without reporting the size of the batch. Our batches vary between 1 and 2 lbs. at a time. We truly are a small batch roaster.
Immediately after roasting all of the Amrita Certified Pure® Coffees are packaged in a bag with oxygen, moisture and light barriers. The bags contain a one-way valve that allows carbon dioxide to be released from the coffee while inhibiting oxygen intake. These bags are designed to preserve freshness.
Preserving the coffee’s freshness requires proper storage. Coffee’s natural enemies are light, moisture, oxygen and heat. Once the coffee bag is opened, the coffee is being introduced to light, moisture, oxygen, and in some cases heat. The best way to store coffee is in an opaque, airtight container in the pantry. To enjoy coffee at its freshest and finest it should be consumed within two weeks of opening the bag.
All of Amrita Certified Pure® Coffees are shipped whole bean to preserve freshness. Ground coffee has more surface area that is exposed to air. Air oxidizes the coffee and causes the coffee to go stale. By freshly grinding the coffee beans immediately before brewing, the coffee will be fresher and the flavors of the coffee will extract properly.
Proper selection of a grinder is a simple but important step. There are two basic types of grinders, blade and burr.
The blade grinder is an inexpensive grinder that is also suited for grinding spices. The big disadvantage of the blade grinder is achieving a consistent grind. Consistent grind particles are critical in brewing coffee. An inconsistent grind will result in some of the larger particles being under-extracted and giving a grassy, sour taste to the coffee, while smaller particles will be over-extracted leaving a bitter taste. Once a blade grinder has been used for a spice grinder, it will contaminate all future coffee grounds with the spice flavor.
Burr grinders are better suited for specialty coffee. The burrs crush the beans to an even consistency resulting in a better tasting coffee. The burr grinders have settings for different grind particle sizes. For espresso we recommend a burr grinder that is specifically designed for espresso because these grinders have finer settings designed for espresso.
Regardless of the type of grinder chosen, be sure to clean the grinder with a brush and towel after each use. Grind particles left in the grinder over time will result in stale, rancid-tasting coffee. Never use water to clean your grinder. On burr grinders, the burr can be removed for easy brushing and cleaning. Follow the cleaning instructions given by the manufacturer.
The type of grind is determined by the brewing method. Generally, the longer contact time with the water the coarser a grind is used. Our recommended grinds are listed in the table below.
|1. Turkish||Extra fine like flour, the finest setting on burr grinders.|
|2. Espresso||Fine, like finely ground cornmeal, slightly coarser than flour.|
|3. Pour Over, Moka||Medium fine like granulated sugar.|
|4. Auto Drip||Medium slightly coarser than granulated sugar.|
|5. Chemex||Medium to coarse like Kosher salt.|
|6. French Press, Cold Brew||Coarse, like coarse cornmeal or grits, the coarsest setting on a burr grinder.|
As one experiments with grinding adjust the grind if the coffee is brewing too weak or too strong. Prior to adjusting the grind verify that the proper amount of coffee is being used in relation to the amount of water. For coffee that is weak, lacking color, tastes grassy, lacks sweetness or is sour, a finer grind will improve the flavor. For coffee that is strong, dark in color, astringent or bitter tasting, a coarser grind will improve the flavor.
While there are myriad ways of brewing good and bad coffee, there are some simple steps involved in brewing a perfect cup of coffee. The first few steps have already been taken care of; the coffee is properly grown, processed, roasted, packaged, stored and grinding. Now, the next crucial components are the water and coffee-to-water ratio.
At Amrita Certified Pure® Coffee we prefer to use 100 percent spring water. When spring water is not available, we recommend filtered water. Never use demineralized water. Coffee needs the minerals found naturally in water for the proper balance of flavor. Over 90 percent of brewed coffee is water so it is crucial that the proper water is used.
The ratio of coffee is simple, use 60 grams of coffee per liter of water. Okay, maybe it’s not so simple. First most homes do not have a gram scale; second most homes use tablespoons for coffee and cups for water. Breaking down the conversion, use 2 tablespoons (3/8 oz) of coffee for every 6 oz (3/4 cup) of water. We break down the conversion to 6 oz of water to accommodate the standard measure of a cup in most coffeemakers. In coffee lingo, a cup is not 8 ounces; a cup of coffee is only 6 ounces.
Brewing Coffee in an Auto Drip Coffeemaker
A good coffee brewer will brew coffee at 195 degrees Fahrenheit to 205 degrees Fahrenheit . Choose a brewer that has a cone-shaped filter holder over a basket-shaped filter holder. A brewer with a thermal carafe is an excellent option as the coffee will left on a warmer will become bitter and burnt tasting. Brewers that have a built-in grinder require vigilant cleaning of the grind channels.
Before brewing make sure your carafe, filter holder, spray head area and grinding channels are completely clean. Coffee residue and oils will impart a bitter and rancid taste if the brewer is not completely clean. Now you are ready to brew:
- Rinse the filter holder and carafe in hot water to prewarm the carafe and filter holder.
- Insert a filter in the filter holder.
- Add ground coffee to the filter using approximately 2 tablespoons of medium fine to medium ground coffee for every 6 oz of water.
- Add COLD water, bottled or filtered to the brewer.
- Brew the coffee according to the manufacturer’s brewing instructions.
At Amrita Certified Pure® Coffee, our favorite way of brewing is the Pour Over method. Pour Overs highlight the characteristics of the coffee, giving the coffee a lively and clean cup. While this method was popularized in 1908 with Melitta Benz’s invention of the paper filter, it has gained popularity in recent years with the emergence of the Third Wave cafes and the work of the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA) on brewing standards. Below are the simple steps of brewing an awesome cup of coffee:
- Measure 23 grams (approximately 4 tablespoons) of coffee.
- Grind the coffee medium fine.
- Place a filter in a Hario or Beehouse filter holder.
- Place the filter holder on top of a carafe or large mug.
- Pour hot water over the filter, making sure the filter is thoroughly soaked. Use enough water to fill the carafe or mug at least 1/3 full.
- Place the ground coffee in the filter and shake gently to level out the coffee.
- Empty the carafe.
- Place the prewarmed carafe on a gram scale* and the filter holder with the coffee on top of the carafe or mug.
- Tare the scale to zero.
- Pour near boiling water (205 degrees Fahrenheit) onto the coffee just barely wetting the grounds. Make sure all of the grounds appear wet. The coffee will bloom. The bloom is an expansion of the coffee grounds while the gases from the coffee are released. You should use 35 – 40 grams of water.
- Let the bloom settle for 5 – 15 seconds.
- Continue to pour water over the coffee in a slow circular motion from the center to the outer edges and back to the center. This circular motion will create a turbulence that aids in the extraction of the coffee. Stop pouring when the scale reaches 385 grams. The pouring process should take about 2 minutes.
- Allow the water to drip through the coffee.
- Remove the filter and serve.
*If a gram scale is unavailable, measure out 13 oz. of near boiling water (205 degrees Fahrenheit) and follow the pouring instructions.
Brewing in the Chemex is similar to the Pour Over with the Hario or Beehouse filter holders. The main difference with the Chemex is the filter is thicker so brewing time is longer and the coffee has less oil. The Chemex is flexible in batch sizes.
Measure 23 grams (approximately 4 tablespoons) for a 12 oz. serving or 46 grams (approximately 8 tablespoons) for a 24 oz serving.
- Grind the coffee medium coarse.
- Shape a Chemex paper filter into a cone by separating the 3rd and 4th layers of the filter without unfolding the paper.
- Place the filter in the Chemex with the 3 layer side centered on the spout of the Chemex.
- Rinse the filter and warm the Chemex carafe by pouring near boiling water (205©) completely soaking the filter. Pour enough water to fill the Chemex carafe about 1 /3 full.
- Empty the Chemex carafe by carefully pouring out the water without removing the filter by gently lifting the filter near the spout.
- Add the ground coffee to the filter and gently shake the Chemex carafe to level out the coffee.
- Place the carafe on a gram scale and tare the scale to zero.*
- Pour enough water to soak the grounds and create a bloom. The bloom is an expansion of the coffee grounds while gases are being released. The amount of water needed for the bloom will be approximately 40 grams for the 12 oz. serving and 80 grams for the 24 oz. serving.
- Let the bloom settle for about 15 to 20 seconds.
- Slowly pour water in a circular motion over the grounds. Pausing for about 20 seconds when the filter is full. Pour until the scale reads 385 grams for the 12 oz. and 770 grams for the 24 oz. The pouring process will take about 4 minutes for the 12oz. and about 6 minutes for the 24oz.
- Allow all of the water to drip through the filter.
- Remove the filter and immediately serve.
For years the French Press was the preferred method of brewing among coffee professionals. This method produces a full bodied, earthy cup. The method is easy and elegant.
- Measure 23 grams or 2 tablespoons of coffee for every 6 oz. of water being used. Note: many French Presses have different definitions of cup sizes with some cup sizes measuring as little as 4 oz.
- Grind the coffee on a coarse grind.
- Place the coffee in the bottom of the French Press beaker.
- Add approximately 6 oz. of near boiling water (205 degrees Fahrenheit) into the beaker for every 2 tablespoons of coffee.
- Stir the coffee.
- Gently set the lid of the beaker onto the top of the grounds with the plunger pulled up.
- Let the coffee steep for 4 minutes.
- Slowly push the plunger down. Be sure to hold the French Press handle while plunging the coffee. If the plunger will not go down, slowly push the plunger up and then slowly down. Difficulty in plunging the coffee is a sign that the coffee is ground too fine.
- Serve and enjoy.
The Moka brewer is often referred to as a stovetop espresso brewer. This is not really a espresso brewer but makes a wonderful full bodied clean cup. One of our staff members had a memorable cup of coffee brewed in a Moka while visiting the Dominican Republic. After traveling for about four hours up a mountain in a four wheel drive vehicle stocked with water, propane, and coffee, she stopped at a quaint cottage overlooking the mountains and the sunset. Immediately upon arrival the coffee was brewed. That cup of coffee will always be treasured and remembered.
- Unscrew the top of the pot from the bottom and remove the filter basket.
- Add water to the bottom chamber. Fill until just below the release valve.
- Measure whole bean coffee into the filter basket.
- Grind the coffee medium fine and place back in the filter basket.
- Level the coffee. DO NOT TAMP the coffee.
- Place the filter basket in the bottom chamber.
- Screw on the top part of the pot to the bottom.
- Place the pot on the stove over medium heat. Once the water is heated, it will rise up into the coffee and be pushed up to the top chamber.
- The coffee is done when the gurgling sound stops. Immediately remove from the stove.
- Serve and enjoy.
Cold Brew Toddy
Cold brew coffee is one of the more popular coffee trends in the United States. The advantages of the cold brew is less acid and bitterness is extracted from the coffee. When added to ice, the ice does not dilute the coffee as much as hot brewed coffee. The process is simple with the toddy brewer.
- Place the rubber stopper in the bottom of the brewing chamber from outside of the chamber.
- Moisten the reusable filter and insert inside the brewing chamber at the bottom.
- Add one cup of cold filtered or bottled water to the brewing chamber.
- Add 6 oz of coarsely ground coffee.
- Add three cups of cold filtered or bottled water.
- Add 6 oz of coffee to the mixture.
- Wait five minutes.
- Add 3 more cups of water to the mixture. Do not stir. If the coffee grounds on top are not wet, gently press down with the back of a spoon to moisten.
- Steep the coffee for 12 to 18 hours.
- After steeping hold the brewing chamber above the carafe and remove the stopper. Place the brewing chamber on top of the carafe and let the coffee drain into the carafe.
- To make iced coffee add one part brewed coffee concentrate to two parts water or milk, sweeten to taste, and add ice.
Unused coffee concentrate can be refrigerated up to ten days.
Espresso is a method of extraction of any type of coffee. The beverage is a 1 to 1 ½ oz. drink prepared with between seven and nine grams of coffee through which clean water of 195 degrees Fahrenheit and 205 degrees Fahrenheit has been forced at 9 to 10 bars of pressure, and where the grind of the coffee is such that the brewing “flow” time is approximately 20-30 seconds. While brewing, the flow of espresso will appear to have the viscosity of warm honey and the resulting beverage will exhibit a thick, dark, golden crema. Espresso is not a blend, a grind or a roast color, as defined by the SCAA.
Amrita Certified Pure prefers Single Origin Espresso. A single origin espresso will accentuate the unique flavor characteristics of one particular coffee, creating a truly unique espresso.
In today’s market there are many espresso brewers from pressure, pump and super-automatics for the consumer to choose from. We recommend pump machines as they produce a consistent beverage with good crema and have good frothing mechanisms. When purchasing a pump machine, one must also purchase a quality espresso grinder. Pressure machines are inexpensive, however the resulting beverage may be thin and sharp tasting. The super automatics will grind, brew and froth milk. However, the ability to dial in the espresso and produce sweet micro foam milk for “latte art” is limited.
Key brewing instructions will vary from machine to machine but the basic how to’s are relativity simple:
- Most portafilters are designed to hold the proper amount of espresso. Simply grind the coffee into the portafilter and level the coffee.
- Use a good tamper to tamp the coffee into the portafilter. When properly tamped the filter can be turned upside down without spilling the coffee.
- Prior to inserting the portafilter into the group head run, the water for a few seconds. This will ensure that all the water going into the espresso is at optimal temperature.
- Time the espresso shot from the moment the brew button/knob/paddle is turned on.
- Within 20 to 30, seconds the resulting brew should be between 1 and 1 ½ ozs. per single shot. If less coffee is brewed in the 20 to 30 seconds, adjust the grind to a coarser grind. If more coffee is brewed then adjust the grind to a finer grind.
Macchiato, Cappuccino and Lattes
These espresso-based beverages are created by adding frothed milk to espresso. Espresso machines come equipped with a frothing wand. The wand heats the milk and incorporates air into the milk. The differences in the beverages are the proportions of espresso to milk. Macchiatos have the least amount of milk while lattes have the most. Variations include the addition of syrups and whipped cream.
Most Americans distinguish a cappuccino and a latte by the amount of foam in the milk, and a macchiato as an espresso with a marking of milk. Under this premise, cappuccino comprise 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk and 1/3 foamed milk. Lattes are defined as having about 1/3 espresso and 2/3 steamed milk, with just a dollop of foamed milk. Macchiato is defined as an espresso served in a demitasse cup with a touch of foamed milk.
The World Barista Championships distinguishes the beverages their serving sizes. A macchiato is served in a 2 oz. to 3 oz. cup, cappuccino is served in a 5 oz. to 6 oz. cup, and a latte is served in a cup that is larger than 6 oz. All beverages have the same amount of espresso. The milk is stretched and steamed to form a micro-foam that is uniform throughout with the micro-foam bubbles. The micro-foam maximizes the sweetness of the sugars in the milk and gives the milk the proper texture to create latte art. Using the championship standards for frothing milk, latte art can be created on macchiatos, cappuccinos and lattes.
Basic instructions for creating micro-foam milk:
- Pour cold milk into a steaming pitcher. Use 2 ozs. to 3 ozs. for a macchiato, 4 ozs. to 5 ozs. for a cappuccino and 6 ozs. to 8 ozs. for a latte.
- Start pulling the espresso shot.
- Purge the steaming wand.
- Insert the steaming wand into the milk. The tip of the steaming wand should be just below the surface of the milk. Hold the pitcher by the handle.
- Start steaming. Do not be afraid of the steaming wand! Turn the wand on to full steam. Place the palm of your free hand on the side of the steaming pitcher. As air is incorporated into the milk, continue to lower the pitcher so that the nozzle of the steaming wand remains just below the surface of the milk.
- When the palm of your hand and the side of the pitcher are at the same temperature move the pitcher up so the steaming wand nozzle is near the bottom of the pitcher. Keep a swirling motion in the milk by tipping slightly the steaming pitcher towards one side.
- When the side of the pitcher becomes almost too hot to touch shut off the steam and remove the pitcher.
- Purge and clean the steaming wand with a clean towel. Be careful not to burn yourself.
- Pull Espresso shot into cup.
- Steam milk.
- Gently tap the pitcher with the micro-foam milk on the counter, placing your hand just above the pitcher. This will pop the larger size bubbles.
- Swirl the pitcher to make sure that the micro-foam is evenly distributed.
- Slightly tilt the cup with the espresso.
- Start pouring in the milk, slowing from about three to five inches above the surface of the espresso. The milk will fall below the surface of the crema.
- Continue pouring until the cup is halfway filled. Level out the cup and bring the pitcher closer to the espresso. The milk will now float above the crema, creating a cloud on the surface of the crema.
- As the cloud forms, move the pitcher backwards (towards you and the edge of the cup).
- When the cup is almost full and you are near the edge of the cup, decrease the flow of milk and move the pitcher forward (away from you) to the other side of the cup, cutting a line with the milk and forming a heart. As you move to the other side of the cup increase the speed of the forward movement. Think of a jet taking off.
- Pull Espresso shot into cup.
- Steam milk.
- Gently tap the pitcher with the micro-foam milk on the counter, placing your hand just above the pitcher. This will pop the larger size bubbles.
- Swirl the pitcher to make sure that the micro foam is evenly distributed.
- Tilt the cup with the espresso slightly.
- Start pouring in the milk slowing from about three to five inches above the surface of the espresso. The milk will fall below the surface of the crema.
- Continue pouring until the cup is halfway filled. Level out the cup and bring the pitcher closer to the espresso. The milk will now float above the creama, creating a cloud on the surface of the crema.
- Slowly and gently wiggle the pitcher from side to side. This will form arches for the rosetta petals. As you wiggle the pitcher, move the pitcher backwards until the cup is almost full and the milk is being poured near the edge of the cup.
- When the cup is almost full, decrease the flow of milk and move the pitcher forwards (away from you) to the other side of the cup. The milk will cut a line through the arches and form a rosetta. As you move to the other side of the cup, increase the forward movement. Think of a jet taking off.